GNU Free Documentation License Version 1.2, November 2002 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 ountry>USA address> Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. < rele aseinfo>Version 1.2, November 2002 GNU Free Documentati on License PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other f unctional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to as sure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or with out modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Se condarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative wo rks of t he document must themselves be free in the same sense. It co mplements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license de signed for free software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law. A "Modified Version" of the Document means work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied ve or with modifications and/or translated into another language.A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix o a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with t relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Sectio m not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matt historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them. The "Invariant Sections" are certain Seconda Sections whose itles are designated, as being t hose of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released unde this License. If a section does not fit th above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none. The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in th notice that says that the Document is released under this License Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and Back-Cover Text may b most 25 words. A "Tranparent" copy of the Document machine-readable copy, represented ina format whose specifi c ation available to the general public, that is suitable for revising th document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of form for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque". Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies includ ASCII withoutmarkup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simpl PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-gener HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors fo outp purposes only. The "Title Page" means, for a printed boo the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body o the text. A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another langu (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned bel "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition. The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applie s to the Document. These Warra Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this Licens but onlyas regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.
VERBATIM COPYING You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, e commercially or noncommercially, provided th a t this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the condition in section You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.
COPYING IN QUANTIT If you publish printed copies (or copiesin media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's licens e notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly dentify you as publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the f with all words of the title equally prominent and vi s ible. Yo other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limi to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects. If the required texts for either cover are too voluminou legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages. If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 1 00, you must either inclde a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaue copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which t he general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free o added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public. It is requested, but not required, that you contact the author the Document well before redistributing any large number of copie give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
MODIFICATIONS You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensin distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoe possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in th Modified Version: GNU FDL Modification Conditions Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document , and from those of pr versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previou version if the original publisher of that version gives permission. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications the Modified Version, together with at least five of the princip authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices. Include, immediately after the copyright notices license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's li cense notice.Include an unaltered copy of this License. Prserve the section Entitled "History", Pr e serve i itle, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new au thors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the TitlePage. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Documentcreate one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of theDocument as given on its Title Page, the n add an item describing theModified Version as stated in the previous sentence. istitem>Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Do cument for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and li kewise the network locations given in the Document for previous ersions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" se ction. You may omit a network location for a work that waspublished at least four years before the Document itself, or if theoriginal publisher of the version it refers to gives permission. istitem>For any sectio n Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "D edications", Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the se ction all the substance and tone of each of the contributoracknowledgements and/o r dedications given therein.simpara> Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Documen naltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or th quivalent are not considered part of the section titles. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".Such a section may not be inclu ded in the Modified Version.simpara> D not retitle any existing section to be Entit Endorsements" o r to conflict in title with any Invariant Section Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers. orderedlist> If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appe ndices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no materialcied from the Document, you m ay at your optiondesignate some othese sections as invariant. To do this, add th e ir titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license noticeese titles must be d istinct from any other section titles. ara>Yo u may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it cont ains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard. You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words s a Back-Cover T ext, to the end of list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permis from the previous publisher that added the old one. The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
COMBINING DOCUMENS You may combine the Document with other documents released un this License, under the terms defined in secti 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of you combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers. The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by add at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original autho publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Mak same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Secti in the license notice of the combined work. In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknwledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".

COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS< /title> <para>You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual co of this License in the various documents with a single copy tha included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of thi License for verbatim copying of each of he docume n ts in all other respects.</para> <para>You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.</para> </section> <section id="gfdl-7"><title>AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document. If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to th copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or t he electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
TRANSLATION Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you ma distribute translations of the Document under the term s of se Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail. If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements" "Dedicat i ons", or "History", the requirement (ection 4) to Prese Title (sect i on 1) will typically require changing the actual title.
TERMINATION You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any ot to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and automatically terminate your rights under this License. However parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions the GNU Free Documentation License from t ime to time. uch new v will be similar in spirit to the p resent version, but may differ detail to address new probl e ms or concerns. See https://www.gnu.org/cop y left/. Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified or of any later version that has been published (not as adraft) b Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a vers number of this License, you may choose any version eve published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
ADDENDUM: How to use this License your documents To use this Li c ense in a document you have written, includ e a of the License in the docment and put the following copyright and license notices just af t er the title page: If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this: